Durham, John George Lambton, Earl of


Durham, John George Lambton, Earl of
(1792-1840)
   Entered British Parliament, 1814, for county of Durham, and won recognition as an advanced Reformer. Brought forward plan of parliamentary reform in 1821. Raised to peerage, 1828. Member of Grey's ministry, 1830. Sent to St. Petersburg on special mission, 1833. Ambassador to Russia, 1836. Sent to Canada in 1838 to bring order out of the chaos of the Rebellion. His famous Report followed. His policy in Canada excited much opposition both in Great Britain and Canada. The House of Lords voted disapproval of some of his acts, and he took the extraordinary step of returning to England without either being recalled or obtaining the royal consent. Nevertheless the wisdom of his recommendations has since been abundantly justified. Died at Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, soon after his return.
   Index: Mc "A man ahead of his time," 6, 7; speech on the Reform Bill, 14, 15; his report on the Constitutional Act, 55; on the position of lieutenant-governor, 56; on the Legislative Council, 57; on the Executive Council, 58, 63, 64; says Reformers are justified in demanding responsible executive, 59, 67, 68, 69; points out powerlessness of Assembly, 60; on the Family Compact, 62, 65; Clergy Reserves one of the chief causes of Rebellion, 71, 72; on evils arising from Constitutional Act, 75, 76; says representative government was guaranteed by Constitutional Act, 76; his report justifies Reformers, 77; Stuart J. Reid on the Report, 78, 79; analogy between Report and "Seventh Report on Grievances," 79, 80; Union Act of 1840 based on Report, 80; recommends responsible government, 81; authorship of Report, 82, 83; on Head's interference in election, 309; on the causes of disaffection, 402; the remedy, 403. Md On representation by population, 71; on federal union, 93-95. T His views on union, 61. C His inquiry and report, 11-12; Poulett Thomson sent out to Canada to give effect to his recommendations, 12; would merge French-Canadians in the Anglo-Saxon race, 12; exposes frauds of Constitution of 1791, 13; in favour of ministerial responsibility, 96. H His report before Nova Scotia Legislature, 53; advocates Intercolonial Railway, 99. P On Papineau's refusal to accept Lord Goderich's offer of control of the revenue, 77; exiles leaders of Rebellion to Bermuda, 138; his action vetoed by Imperial government, 139; vindicates his action in a parting proclamation, 139; on the system of government in Lower Canada, 157; denied access to Canadian documents in Paris archives, 165; his scheme for union of the Canadas arouses opposition of French-Canadians, 170. R Ryerson on, 115; Ryerson supports his recommendations, 117; his Report, 120-122. MS Comes to Canada, 243; his Report, 243; appoints Adam Thom to his staff, 245. Sy His lack of discretion, 57, 89; his Report, 85, 89-97, 345; his Report welcomed by British party in Lower Canada, 95; and Reformers of Upper Canada, 96; criticized in report of the Upper Canada Assembly, 97-100; also in report of committee of Legislative Council, 100-103; quoted against his own Report, 162. B On causes of Rebellion in Lower Canada, 11, 53; his remedy for political discontent, 12, 13; estimates numerical strength of Church of England in Upper Canada, 52-53; his Report quoted, on land grants, 53-54; on representation, 82-83; and Confederation, 129; his plan of legislative union, 263. BL On political situation in Upper Canada, 17; and Lower Canada, 17; in period of reconstruction, 50; sent to Canada, 53; previous career, 53; his arbitrary methods in Canada, 54; attacked in House of Lords, and his ordinance granting amnesty disallowed, 55; his proclamation, 55; his recall, 55; his Report, 55-58; Imperial government acts upon his advice, 59; his recommendations, 66; recommends responsible government, 137, 273; John Stuart Mill on, 149; on the duties of the governor, 161, 163; his Report quoted by Baldwin, 222; and Elgin, 274; eulogized by Draper, 277. E His characteristics as a statesman, 2; his daughter marries Lord Elgin, 14; sound principles laid down in his Report indicated by Lord Elgin, 15; compared with Elgin, 15; sums up nature of conflict in Lower Canada, 18; advocates ultimate domination of English element, 23, 55; his views on representative government, 25-26; on land grants to United Empire Loyalists, 144-145; on Clergy Reserves, 148, 154-155; on American misconstruction of conditions in Canada, 190-191; on economic conditions in Canada in 1838-1839, 191; suggests remedies, 192-193, 194, 195.
   Bib.: Report on the Affairs of British North America; Haliburton, Reply to the Report of the Earl of Durham; Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada; Egerton and Grant, Canadian Constitutional Development; Garnett, The Authorship of Lord Durham's Report; Christie, History of Lower Canada; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Dict. Eng. Hist.; Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dent, Can. Por.; Reid, Life and Letters of Lord Durham.

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